Elbow | Definition, Synonyms, Antonyms & Anatomy


The elbow is the upper part of the human body. In Latin, it is known as articulatio cubiti. It permits for the basic motion and function mainly in the form of extension and flexion. However, the joint of elbow makes possible the motion of the hand in the form of supination and pronation of the forearm.


It is the joint between the upper arm and forearm of the human that supports the external curve of the arm when bent. In Urdu, we call it کہنی.


This word originates from Old English aelboga, elnboga, of Germanic origin related to Dutch elleboog and German Ellenbogen.


  • Arm joint
  • Jostle
  • Nudge
  • Bend of the arm


  • Curliness
  • Straightness
  • Unbend
  • Straighten


It expands, straightens, and bends the arm. Its movement range is from 0 degrees expansion to 150 degrees flexion. Also, it is a turning point and it revolves the elbow in various directions without moving it from its original position. Its main functions are:

  • Extension
  • Flexion
  • Supination
  • Pronation

Anatomy of Elbow

Usually, It is a hinged joint. It is made up of three bones and the ends of these bones are covered with cartilage that permits the joints to slip with no trouble next to one another and absorb shock. The bones are held together with ligaments which makes the joint capsule. These three bones are:

  • Humerus
  • Radial Head
  • Ulna


They are a strong rope-like tissue that connects bone to bone. Generally, it works to hold structures together and keep them steady. The four ligaments are:

Medial Collateral Ligament: This ligament is within the elbow.

Lateral Collateral Ligament: This ligament is on the outer surface of the elbow.

Annular Ligament: It grips the radial head tight as opposed to the ulna.

Quadrate Ligament: It connects the radius to the ulna.


They are the soft tissues which are made up of flexible fibers. The muscles connected to the bones of the arm assist you in the movement of the elbow. There are almost seven main muscles which are grouped into:

  • Flexor Group
  • Extensor Group

Flexor Group:

  • Brachialis
  • Biceps brachii
  • Brachioradialis

Extensor Group:

  • Triceps brachii
  • Anconeus

Also, the rotation of the forearm is by two muscles that are:

  • Pronator teres
  • Supinator


They are similar to wires that take electrical impulses from the brain and the other parts of the body. These impulses assist in feeling sensations and also in the movements of the muscles. Nerves in the elbow are:

  • Radial nerve
  • Ulnar nerve
  • Median nerve
  • Musculocutaneous nerve

Blood Vessels:

They are like channels that take blood through the body. They make a closed loop such as a circuit which starts and ends at the heart. The three arteries which carry blood include:

  • Brachial artery
  • Radial artery
  • Ulnar artery


The three joints are:

Ulnohumeral joint: It is where movement among the ulna and humerus happens.

Radio humeral joint: This is where movement among the radius and humerus happens.

Proximal radioulnar joint: It is where movement between the radius and ulna happens.

Joint Capsules

The bones in the elbow are joined jointly with the ligaments which make the joint capsule. It is a fluid full bag that surrounds and greases the joint. The joint is enclosed by a synovial membrane bounded by a joint capsule.

It expands from the margins of the capitulum and trochlea on the humerus to the coronoid procedure ahead and the olecranon fossa from the back.

Elbow Pain

It is frequently due to overuse or injury. Many hobbies and jobs require recurring hand or arm movements. Also, it can be the outcome of problems with bones, muscles, tendons, or joints. It may rarely be due to arthritis.

Elbow Disorders

  • Tennis Elbow
  • Olecran
  • on bursitis
  • Cubital tunnel syndrome
  • Osteoarthritis
  • Fractures
  • Sprains and Strains
  • Tendinopathy
  • Dislocation
  • Radial tunnel syndrome
  • Gout
  • Osteochondritis dissecans


  • Sara hit her elbow on the wall.
  • His elbow was injured badly.
  • Ahmed jabbed her with his elbow.
  • Saba put his elbow on her knees.
  • Her shirt was worn out from the elbow.

FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)

Mention the name of the tendons in elbow.

  • Biceps Tendon
  • Triceps Tendon

Name of the vein which drains the elbow?

The Median Cubital Vein drains the elbow.

Mention the name of the tip of the elbow.

It is known as the ocecranon.

Mention the range of the motion.

  • Flexion: Among 130° and 154°
  • Extension: Among –6° and 11°

What are the three mechanisms of injury?

  • Valgus
  • Posterior Translation
  • Posterolateral rotator

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